Research

Mysterious rise in CFC11 emissions

Mysterious rise in CFC11 emissions

Use of the chemical was banned in 2010 via the Montreal Protocol, an worldwide agreement made to protect the environment.

"It is therefore imperative that this finding be discussed at the next Ministerial meeting of Governments given recovery of the ozone layer is dependent on all countries complying with the Montreal Protocol (and its adjustments and amendments) with emissions globally dropping to zero".

Officially, the production of CFC-11 should be near zero or nearly zero - at least, those are the countries that cooperate with the United Nations body that monitors and ensures compliance with the Montreal Protocol.

Scientists have carefully monitored the progress and measured chemical compound of the planet's atmosphere. And good thing they did.

"We're raising a flag to the global community to say, 'This is what's going on, and it is taking us away from timely recovery of the ozone layer, '" said Stephen Montzka of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the scientist who led the new research. This chemical - previously used as a solvent, a refrigerant, as a precursor in styrofoam production, and a propellant in spray cans - is now banned for production under the protocol.

CFC-11 is also known as trichlorofluoromethane, and is one of a number of CFCs that were initially developed as refrigerants during the 1930s.

More news: Amazon launches 8 new voices for Alexa Skills

But in 2012 scientists noted that the rate of decline had slowed by 50 per cent, according to the new study. Some early systems might be having a CFC-11 leak but such systems should slowly vanish so that the concentration of the chemical in the atmosphere diminishes over time.

Image credits Montzaka et al. Reports previous year indicated that production of new chlorine containing chemicals could cause significant delay. Some of these, however, could be ruled out quite easily: the first was whether weather-pattern-induced movements of CFCs in the stratosphere caused the observed variations.

Zaelke said that the study surprised him not only because CFC-11 has been banned since long but also due to the reason that there are alternatives of the chemical available in the market. The concentration of these gases has always been higher in the (more developed, more industrialized) Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern one. Other gases haven't followed the same pattern, the authors add, suggesting that the increase in CFC-11 emissions come from somewhere in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the CFC-11 showed a relatively less drop of about 1.0 part-per-trillion each year in between the year 2015 and the year 2017.

Researchers say their evidence shows it's likely that new, illegal emissions of CFC-11 are coming from East Asia.

While the new analysis can't definitively explain why emissions of CFC11 are increasing, but Montzka suspects covert production.

The emissions are a direct violation of the Montreal Protocol.


  • Is it Yanny or Laurel?

    Is it Yanny or Laurel?

    So if a person hears lower frequencies better, "You would hear Laurel , because that has lower frequency sounds in it". Azaar Hemingway was out on the basketball court with his headphones so we saw if putting them on made any difference.
    Ag teacher allegedly drowns raccoons in front of students

    Ag teacher allegedly drowns raccoons in front of students

    Footage from the class shows a raccoon in a metal wire trap being dunked into a garbage bin that has been filled with water. One video shows the tip of a raccoon's snout sticking out just above the surface of the water.
    Case dismissed, Gov. Greitens apologizes to family, friends, Missourians

    Case dismissed, Gov. Greitens apologizes to family, friends, Missourians

    She has said Greitens threatened to disseminate the photo if she spoke of their encounter but later told her he had deleted it. The governor has repeatedly denied any criminal wrongdoing and dismissed widespread, bipartisan calls for his resignation.
  • Accessible Xbox One controller confirmed, available this year

    Accessible Xbox One controller confirmed, available this year

    It's a very moving video highlighting how the Xbox Adaptive Controller can provide an avenue for gamers with limited mobility. SpecialEffect's Founder and CEO, Dr Mick Donegan, said: "This has been a milestone collaboration for us".
    Chrissy Teigen And John Legend Announce Birth Of Second Baby

    Chrissy Teigen And John Legend Announce Birth Of Second Baby

    Chrissy who already has a 2-year-old daughter with her husband John took to her social media to make the exciting announcement. And Chrissy had previously admitted her second pregnancy has been a lot harder than the first time around.
    Ramadan to start on Thursday, religious leaders say

    Ramadan to start on Thursday, religious leaders say

    The Australian National Imams Council (ANIC) also confirmed that the Ramadan moon was not sighted anywhere in Australia. Growing up in a multi-faith, Roman Catholic and Muslim home, Soltani didn't start fasting for Ramadan until he was 17.
  • Samantha Markle allegedly hospitalised with a broken ankle

    Samantha Markle allegedly hospitalised with a broken ankle

    Mark stated Samantha , who has MS, hit the windscreen and fell into the footwell however was unable to life herself again up. She continued, "So I said, really you need to show the world that you're getting in shape and doing great healthy things".
    Reports on Other 'Suspicious' Michael Cohen Transactions Have Gone Missing

    Reports on Other 'Suspicious' Michael Cohen Transactions Have Gone Missing

    The president's tax returns would give a clear picture, but Trump has broken with tradition by refusing to make them public. His Doral club, as was the case past year , dwarfed the rest of his golf properties, with revenues of nearly $75 million.
    Zarif visits Russia, China to save nuclear deal

    Zarif visits Russia, China to save nuclear deal

    The Washington Post reports that the United Kingdom, France and Germany had spent the past several months trying to negotiate with the U.S.
  • Michigan State Reaches Settlement With 332 Larry Nassar Victims

    Michigan State Reaches Settlement With 332 Larry Nassar Victims

    The US Department of Education is also investigating the public university's handling of reports of Nassar's abuse. Nassar told the patients that the invasive action was necessary to treat their sports-related injuries.
    Government strips Stagecoach of Virgin East Coast franchise

    Government strips Stagecoach of Virgin East Coast franchise

    This transfer could also see Transport for London incorporate more shorter-distance routes into its London Overground operation. Control will pass in June to the "operator of last resort" - an Arup-led group contracted on the government's behalf.
    Ford to resume F-150 production Friday at Dearborn Truck Plant

    Ford to resume F-150 production Friday at Dearborn Truck Plant

    The F-Series accounts for nearly 40% of Ford's unit sales in the USA and has been the top selling vehicle in America for decades. In between, the Ford team received a United Kingdom import license for the die - a mere two hours before the plane touched down.